Towards Robust and Efficient Computation in Dynamic Peer-to-Peer Networks

John Augustine, Gopal Pandurangan, Peter Robinson and Eli Upfal

Motivated by the need for robust and fast distributed computation in highly dynamic Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks, we study algorithms for the fundamental distributed agreement problem. P2P networks are highly dynamic networks that experience heavy node {\em churn} (i.e., nodes join and leave the network continuously over time). Our main contributions are randomized distributed algorithms that guarantee {\em stable almost-everywhere agreement} with high probability even under high adversarial churn in polylogarithmic number of rounds. In particular, we present the following results:
1. An -round (n is the stable network size) randomized algorithm that achieves almost-everywhere agreement with high probability under up to {\em linear} churn {\em per round} (i.e., , for some small constant ), assuming that the churn is controlled by an oblivious adversary (has complete knowledge and control of what nodes join and leave and at what time and has unlimited computational power, but is oblivious to the random choices made by the algorithm).
2. An -round randomized algorithm that achieves almost-everywhere agreement with high probability under up to churn per round (for some small ), where m is the size of the input value domain, that works even under an adaptive adversary (that also knows the past random choices made by the algorithm).
Our algorithms are the first-known, fully-distributed, agreement algorithms that work under highly dynamic settings (i.e., high churn rates per step). Furthermore, they are localized (i.e., do not require any global topological knowledge), simple, and easy to implement. These algorithms can serve as building blocks for implementing other non-trivial distributed computing tasks in dynamic P2P networks.

Guests: Gopal Pandurangan with John Augustine and Peter Robinson
Host: Chen Avin

Physical Expander in Virtual Tree Overlay

Taisuke Izumi, Maria Gradinariu Potop-Butucaru and Mathieu Valero

In this paper, we propose a new distributed construction of constant-degree expanders motivated by their application in P2P overlay networks and in particular in the design of robust tree overlays. Our key result can be stated as follows. Consider a complete binary tree T and construct a random pairing Π between leaf nodes and internal nodes. We prove that the graph GΠ obtained from T by contracting all pairs (leaf-internal nodes) achieves a constant node expansion with high probability. In the context of P2P overlays our result can be interpreted as follows: if each physical node participating to the tree overlay manages a random pair that couples one virtual internal node and one virtual leaf node then the physical-node layer exhibits a constant expansion with high probability. We encompass the difficulty of obtaining the random tree virtualization by proposing a local, self-organizing and churn resilient uniformly-random pairing algorithm with O(log2 n) running time. Our algorithm has the merit to not modify the original tree overlay (we just control the mapping between physical nodes and virtual nodes). Therefore, our scheme is general and can be easilly extended to a large class of overlays.

Guest: Taisuke Izumi
Host: Chen Avin